Category: Germany

21 New UNESCO World Heritage Sites – Part 1

21 New UNESCO World Heritage Sites – Part 1

World Heritage Sites

At the beginning of July, the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) added 21 new locations to their list of World Heritage sites. A World Heritage site is a place of special cultural or physical significance. Some of the more famous UNESCO World Heritage sites are the Taj Mahal, Easter Island, Petra, Stonehenge, and the Sydney Opera House.

Here’s part one of my guide to the new sites, in which I’ll show you ten of them:

1. Aphrodisias, Turkey

The Temple of Aphrodite in Aphrodisias, Turkey. One of the 21 new UNESCO world heritage sites.
The Temple of Aphrodite at Aphrodisias, Turkey (source)

The name might make you think of aphrodisiacs, and you wouldn’t be too far off.  The town takes its name from the Greek goddess of love, Aphrodite. Aphrodisias became a World Heritage site due to its archaeological site and the marble quarries northeast of the city. The temple of Aphrodite there dates from the 3rd century BC and the city was built one century later. The city’s wealth came from the marble quarries and the art produced by its sculptors. The city has several large and ancient structures, including temples, a theatre, a stadium that held up to 30,000 people, and two bath complexes.

2. Asmara, Eritrea

Asmara, the capital of Eritrea, is one of 21 new UNESCO World Heritage sites.
Eritrea’s capital city of Asmara. (source)

Eritrea is a small nation north of Ethiopia, and bordering the Red Sea. Eritrea was occupied by Italy between roughly 1890 and 1941. The Italian influence had such a strong impact on this country that in the late 1930s, many people referred to the capital city of Asmara as Piccola Roma (Little Rome). Asmara became a World Heritage Site because of its well-preserved colonial Italian modernist architecture.

3. Assumption Cathedral and Monastery of Sviyazhsk, Russia

Assumption Cathedral and Monastery of Sviyazhsk Russia - one of 21 new UNESCO World Heritage sites
The Assumption Cathedral and Monastery of Sviyazhsk. (source)

Sviyazhsk is both a town and an island situated where the Volga, the Sviyaga and the Shchuka rivers meet. Founded by Ivan the Terrible in 1551, Sviyazhsk’s position was one of economic and political power.  In fact, it was key to the expansion of the Russian empire. The cathedral’s frescoes are among the rarest examples of Eastern Orthodox mural paintings.

4. Caves and ice age art in the Swabian Jura, Germany

Venus of Hohle Fels part of Swabian Jura Cave Art - a new UNESCO World Heritage site
Carved from wolly mammoth tusk over 35,000 years ago, this female figure is called the Venus of Hohlen Fels. (source)

The Swabian Jura is a German mountain range with a series of caves that have been a treasure trove of prehistoric artifacts.  These caves held some of the oldest figurative art ever found. In addition to figures of animals, archaeologists also found flutes made from swan and griffon vulture bones, and in 2004 a flute carved from the tusk of a mammoth dating from the Ice Age. To date, the Venus of Hohlen Fels, shown above, is the oldest artistic representation of the human body. These artifacts provide us with a fascinating look at artistic development.

5. Hebron/Al-Khalil Old Town, Palestine

Hebron or Al-Khalil Old Town is one of 21 new UNESCO World Heritage sites.
The Cave of the Patriarchs in Old Town Hebron. (source)

The history of Hebron, also called Al-Khalil, primarily falls into two distinct eras.  First is the Mamluk period (1250-1517), in which buildings were constructed using local limestone.  During this period there were distinct, separate quarters of the city based on ethnic, religious, or professional groupings. Second is the Ottoman period (1517 – 1917), during which the town expanded outward and upward. What makes Hebron remarkable is that despite the 400 years of the Ottoman period, and the century that has followed, the Mamluk era quarters of the city are still pretty much intact.

People from three major religions flock to Hebron to see the Cave of the Patriarchs, a series of subterranean chambers located in the heart of the old city. Dating back over 2,000 years, the compound may be the oldest continuously used intact prayer structure in the world, and is the oldest major building in the world that still fulfills its original purpose. It contains the double tombs of Abraham and Sarah, Isaac and Rebecca, Jacob and Leah, considered the Patriarchs and Matriarchs of the Jewish people.

6. Historic city of Yazd, Iran

The Dolat Abad Garden in Yazd Iran. Yazd is one 1 of the new UNESCO World Heritage sites.
Dolat-abad Garden in Yazd Iran. (source)

The City of Yazd bears living testimony to the use of limited resources for survival in the desert by its underground channel system known as a qanat, which draws water and supplies it to the city. The earthen architecture of Yazd retains its traditional districts, the qanat system, traditional houses, bazaars, hammams, mosques, synagogues, Zoroastrian temples and the historic garden of Dolat-abad.

7. Kujataa, Greenland

The first known example of farming in the arctic is found at Kujataa, Greenland. It is one of the 21 new UNESCO World Heritage sites.
Norse ruins next to modern day structures – evidence that the two farming cultures overlapped. (source)

Kujataa is a sub-arctic farming landscape located in the southern region of Greenland. It bears witness to the cultural histories of the Norse hunters-gatherers who started arriving from Iceland in the 10th century and of the Norse farmers, Inuit hunters and Inuit farming communities that developed from the end of the 18thcentury. Despite their differences, the two cultures, European Norse and Inuit, created a cultural landscape based on farming, grazing and marine mammal hunting. The landscape represents the earliest introduction of farming to the Arctic, and the Norse expansion of settlement beyond Europe.

8. Kulangsu, China

Kulangsu China is known for its international architecture. It is one of 21 new UNESCO World Heritage sites.
A view of Kulangsu and its varied architecture. (source)

Kulangsu is a tiny pedestrian-only island off the coast of Xiamen, China. Kulangsu was established in 1903 as an international settlement, making it an important area for foreign exchanges. Today, Kulangsu is a great example of the cultural fusion that emerged from these exchanges. It is most evident in the mixture of different architectural styles on the island.

9. Mbanza Kongo, Angola

cathedral ruins in Mbanza Kongo. The city is one of 21 new UNESCO World Heritage sites.

Mbanza Kongo was the political and spiritual capital of the Kingdom of Kongo, which was one of the largest constituted states in Southern Africa from the 14th to 19th centuries. The historical area grew around the royal residence, the customary court and the holy tree, as well as the royal funeral places. When the Portuguese arrived in the 15th century they added stone buildings to the existing urban area built with local materials. Mbanza Kongo illustrates, more than anywhere in sub-Saharan Africa, the profound changes caused by the introduction of Christianity and the arrival of the Portuguese into Central Africa.

10. Sacred Island of Okinoshima, Japan

Okinoshima is a sacred island in Japan. It is also one of the 21 new UNESCO World Heritage sites.
A Shinto shrine on the island of Okinoshima, Japan (source)

The island of Okinoshima is an exceptional example of the tradition of worship of a sacred island. The archaeological sites that have been preserved on the island are virtually intact, and they provide a chronological record of how the rituals performed there have changed over time. In these rituals, items were left as offerings at different sites on the island. Integrated within the Grand Shrine of Munakata, the island of Okinoshima is considered sacred to this day. However, don’t be in a rush to put this place on your bucket list.  Women are not allowed to set foot on the island, and the priests who live there only permit men to visit one day a year.

Stay tuned… I’ll cover the other 11 sites in my next post!

new UNESCO World Heritage Sites
New Year’s Eve Celebrations Around the World

New Year’s Eve Celebrations Around the World

Peru – What They Wear

When I was preparing for my trip to Peru, I read that they have some pretty unusual New Year’s Eve traditions.  For starters, they wear yellow underwear (yellow is the color of good luck).  Peruvians wear these yellow undergarments inside out until midnight, then change to the right way once the new year begins.  Other Latin American countries have similar traditions focused on wearing new, brightly colored underwear.

Other Peruvian New Year’s Eve traditions (and believe me, there are plenty!) include eating 12 grapes under the table, running around the block with an empty suitcase (to assure good luck in traveling), placing a coin in each shoe (to bring wealth), throwing a coin over your shoulder to get rid of the previous year’s poverty, and many more.  There are literally dozens of unusual traditions/superstitions for this holiday in Peru, which got me wondering what people do in other countries to celebrate.

New Years Eve Around the World - Yellow underwear brings good luck in Peru.
The sign reads (in part) Don’t forget! Kuko’s luck! December 31 – Luck… lots of luck. Photo via Flickr by Pamela Jai

The Philippines – What They Eat

In the Philippines, bringing in the new year is a noisy affair. In addition to a celebration with fireworks, people in the Philippines thump pots or pans repeatedly and blow car horns in order to drive away any evil spirits. The goal is to make as much noise as possible. But that’s not the only tradition. There is also “Media Noche,” a night of feasting and drinking with family members on New Year’s Eve.  The feast contains no chicken or fish because those foods symbolize famine.  Twelve round fruits (usually serving as the table’s centerpiece) are eaten at this feast.  Other dishes include sticky rice to strengthen the family bond and pancit (long noodles) to bring good health and long life.

new year's eve around the world - Philippines media noche feast
Typical Philippino feast. Image via Flickr by Hungarian Snow. Image has been cropped.

Sweden – What They Recite

Swedes view the beginning of a new year as a magical time, when people try to foresee the future. One way of telling your future was to pour molten lead in water and then interpret the shapes that were produced. Another was to toss shoes. If your shoe landed with the toe pointing towards the door, it meant you would move away or even die during the year.  Another tradition states that one should not to carry anything out of the house, as this signifies discarding happiness for the rest of the year.

new years eve around the world - sweden skansen museum stockholm
Some of the New Year’s Eve festivities at the Skansen museum in Stockholm. Photo via Flickr by nicoversity.

Just before midnight, Swedes at the Skansen open-air museum in Stockholm recite the following poem written by Alfred, Lord Tennyson:

Ring out the false, ring in the true.
Ring out the grief that saps the mind,
For those that here we see no more,
Ring out the feud of rich and poor,
Ring in redress to all mankind.
Ring out a slowly dying cause,
And ancient forms of party strife;
Ring in the nobler modes of life,
With sweeter manners, purer laws.
Ring out the want, the care, the sin,
The faithless coldness of the times;
Ring out, ring out thy mournful rhymes,
But ring the fuller minstrel in.

Turkey – What They Buy

Turkey holds a special lottery on New Year’s Eve, so buying lottery tickets is an annual tradition for many.

New Years Eve Around the World - Turkey has a tradition of making a gift of lottery tickets at the start of a new year.
A Turkish lottery agent selling tickets. Photo via Flickr by ccarlstead.

In addition, many people will sprinkle salt on the doorstep at midnight to bring peace and abundance to their home or business.

Denmark – What They Watch

In Denmark, New Year’s Eve festivities begin with a short speech from the queen – a tradition that has been in place since 1880.  Once Her Majesty has concluded her remarks, a meal with an entree of boiled cod is served.  For desert, there is a towering stack of marzipan rings known as kransekage.

After the meal, Danes may watch an 18-minute film called “Dinner for One.” The sketch presents the 90th birthday of upper-class Englishwoman Miss Sophie, who hosts a celebration dinner every year for her friends Mr Pomeroy, Mr Winterbottom, Sir Toby and Admiral von Schneider. The problem is that Miss Sophie has outlived all of her friends, so her equally aged butler James makes his way around the table, impersonating each of the guests in turn.

The crucial exchange during every course is:

James: The same procedure as last year, Miss Sophie?
Miss Sophie: The same procedure as every year, James!

By the end of the dinner, James is severely inebriated, having consumed 16 glasses of wine. Miss Sophie, who has herself had four rounds of wine, still appears sober; she tells the very drunk James that she wishes to retire to bed. Hand in hand, they head to the staircase and recite the closing lines of dialogue:

James: By the way, the same procedure as last year, Miss Sophie?
Miss Sophie (delightedly): The same procedure as every year, James!
James (slyly): Well, I’ll do my very best!
New Years Eve Around the World - Denmark's Must See TV for New Year's Eve
A scene from “Dinner for One”

Japan – What They Hang Up

In Japan, there is no shortage of New Year’s traditions.  As the calendar turns from one year to the next, they laugh in an effort to ward off evil spirits.  The bells in Buddhist temples ring 108 times to keep away evil forces.  The traditional Japanese New Year dinner menu features boiled seaweed, mashed sweet potato with chestnut, fish cakes, sweetened black soybeans, and simmered burdock root.

In matters of decor, the Japanese hang shimenawa at the entrance of their homes.  Shimenawa are lengths of rice straw rope normally used for ritual purification in the Shinto religion, warding off evil spirits and indicating the sacred areas where gods descend.

New Year's Eve Around the World - Japanese Shimenawa to ward off evil spirits
A Japanese shimenawa. Photo via Flickr by Paul Davidson.

Germany – What They Say

You won’t hear anyone in Germany say, “Happy New Year,” but rather “Guten Rutsch”to wish everyone a good slide into the new year.  Likewise, December 31 is not known as New Year’s Eve.  In Germany it is Silvester, the saint’s day for Pope Silvester, who died on that date in 335 AD.  On a superstitious note, having laundry hanging on the clothesline at the start of the new year supposedly brings bad luck.  Like their Danish neighbors, the Germans are also fond of pouring molten lead into cold water and watching Dinner for One on New Year’s Eve.

Panama & Ecuador – What They Burn

In many Latin American countries, such as Panama and Ecuador, a New Year’s Eve bonfire includes burning effigies of politicians, pop culture figures, and other icons of the year.  The effigies represent the old year and burning them is meant to drive off evil spirits for a fresh start to the new year.

New Year's Eve Around the World - Latin American tradition of burning effigies that represent bad things from the previous year.
Effigies representing the year’s presidential race prior to their being burned at midnight. Photo via Flick by Joe Ross.

Belarus – What They Feed the Roosters

In Belarus, the New Year’s Eve traditions seem to focus on marrying off the single ladies. In one, women stand with a pile of corn before them, and a hungry rooster a little bit farther away. Whichever pile of corn the rooster approaches first reveals who will be the first to marry. In another game, a married woman hides certain items around her house for her unmarried friends to find.  The woman who finds bread will marry a rich man, while the one who finds a ring will marry a handsome man.

New Years Eve Around the World

These are just a few of the ways we celebrate New Year’s Eve around the world. I think it could be interesting to travel for New Year’s.  After all, celebrating the holiday in a different country could inspire you to start new traditions of your own here at home!

Travelasmuch.com Guide to New Year's Eve Celebrations Around the World.
Ten Libraries That Should Be on Every Bibliophile’s Bucket List

Ten Libraries That Should Be on Every Bibliophile’s Bucket List

I love books.  I mean, I pink-puffy-heart love books.  Always have.  I could easily spend hours in a library or book store, even without taking any books home.  Just looking at them, holding them, and thumbing through them is, in my mind, an excellent way to pass the time.

So I was thinking about some of the nicer book stores and libraries I’ve visited, and I thought it would be a great thing to create a travel bucket list for bibliophiles like me.  So here are what I think are ten of the loveliest libraries you could ever hope to step foot in.

1. The Strahov Monastery Library

The Strahov Library in Prague, Czech Republic contains over 200,000 volumes, including over 3,000 manuscripts and 1,500 first prints stored in a special depository. Admission will cost you a little over $4.

strahov-monastery-library-czech-republic

2. The Kelmentinum

Also in Prague, the Klementinum’s Baroque Library Hall is the stunning home of the Czech National Library, housing 20,000 books from the early 17th century onwards. The hall is decorated with magnificent ceiling frescoes, and remains unaltered since the 18th century.  Admission is less than $10 and includes a guided tour of the entire complex, not just the library.

klementinum-czech-national-library

3.  The George Peabody Library

Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland houses the George Peabody Library. It is stunning.  The library’s 300,000 volume collection is particularly strong in religion, British art, architecture, topography and history; American history, biography, and literature; Romance languages and literature; history of science; and geography, exploration and travel.  Admission is free, but if you want to have your wedding there (be still my heart – wouldn’t that be amazing?!?!) you will have to rent the facility.

rsz_george_peabody_library_baltimore_md

4.  The Austrian National Library

Located in Vienna, the Austrian National Library is another beauty. It is the largest library in Austria, with 7.4 million items in its various collections. The library is located in the Hofburg Palace in Vienna. Admission is free.

austrian-national-library-vienna

5.  The Morrin Cultural Center

Located in Quebec, Canada, the Morrin Cultural Center is designed to educate the public about the historic contribution and present-day culture of local English-speakers. The library provides access to English-language books in a largely French-speaking city. Admission is free.

morrin-cultural-center-library-in-quebec

6.  Trinity College Library

The library at the very top of my bucket list is the one at Trinity College in Dublin, Ireland. The ancient Book of Kells is located at this library.  But perhaps even more famous is its Long Room:

trinity-college-library-dublin-ireland

7.  Stuttgart City Library

I am very partial, as you can see, to libraries with multiple levels of shelving, dark-ish interiors, and  art.  It almost feels like a home, inviting you to come inside, relax, and get lost in the pages of a volume.  However, the much more modern Stuttgart City Library also appeals to me for the exact opposite reason… here the books are definitely the stars of the show, and little can distract you from them.  Admission is free.

Stuttgart City Library Germany.jpg

8.  Royal Portuguese Library

Okay, back to dark and cozy.  The Royal Portuguese Library in Rio de Janeiro Brazil is just that.  It is the largest library in Latin America and the 7th largest in the world.  Its collections include about 9 million items. Admission is free.

rsz_royal_portuguese_reading_room_brazil

9.  The Mortlock Wing State Library

Located in South Australia, the Mortlock Wing State Library is housed in a stunning Victorian era building built in the French Renaissance style.  It has two galleries and a glass domed roof.  Admission is free.

rsz_mortlock_wing_state_library_australia

10.  The King’s Library

Finally, the King’s Library (part of the British Library, and also called the King George III Collection) in London is not to be missed.  When King George III came to the throne in the mid-eighteenth century, England did not have a proper library.  He set about the business of acquiring book collections and setting up a royal library.  Today, many of the books from his collection are on view to visitors behind UV-filter glass.  Admission is free.

king-george-iii-library-london

So, there you have it.  Ten amazing, beautiful libraries that you can visit in your travels around the world.  Have you been to any of them?  Let me know in the comments if you have, or if you think I overlooked an amazing library that should have made the list.